Simulations of the Virgo Cold Fronts with Magnetic Fields and Viscosity

Set Characteristics

  • Code: Athena
  • Simulation type: SMR
  • Box size: L = 4 Mpc
  • Finest cell size: \(\Delta{x}_{\rm min}\) = 0.488-0.977 kpc
  • Primary cluster mass: \(M_{200} = 1.51\times10^{14}~M_{\odot}\)


  • There is no metallicity field in these simulations; hence for computing X-ray emissivities a constant metallicity of \(Z = 0.3~Z_\odot\) is assumed.
  • Simulations with viscosity and/or thermal conduction were restarted from their corresponding ideal HD/MHD simulations at core passage, hence for these simulations there are no earlier snapshots available.
  • For each simulation, the main cluster is fixed at r = [0, 0, 0] kpc. A tab-separated ASCII table containing the subcluster position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time may be found here.



For non-cosmological simulations such as this one, a cosmology and redshift are assumed for the purposes of calculating distance and redshift-dependent quantities.

  • \(\Lambda{\rm CDM}\) cosmology
  • \(H_0 = 71~{\rm km~s^{-1}~Mpc^{-1}}\)
  • \(\Omega_m = 0.27\)
  • \(\Omega_\Lambda = 0.73\)
  • \(z = 0.0036\) for all epochs


This set of simulations was performed using the Pleiades supercomputer at NASA’s Ames Research Center.